Native to eastern and northern Australia, growing from southern New South Wales (latitude 37°S) to northern Queensland (latitude 12°S). It often fringes freshwater streams and rivers on both sides of the Great Dividing Range. A distinct race., possibly a separate species, occurs along larger rivers in higher rainfall areas of the Northern Territory (NRC, 1982).
Ranging from Warm Temperate Dry to Moist through Tropical Thorn to Dry Forest Life Zones, the river sheoak is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 5 to 15 dm. Has survived temperatures of -8°C with no apparent injury. Said to tolerate up to 50 light frosts per year. Usually occurs in alluvial soils varying from silty loams to sands and gravels.
Roots are colonized by actinorhizal N-fixing bacteria Frankia.
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